Sunday, June 8, 2008

Suicide, Reeducation, and Reformed Suicides

Deng Xiaoping's self-criticism during the Cultural Revolution, leading to his rehabilitation (re-acceptance into the Communist Party):
Whenever I think of the damages caused by my mistakes and crimes to the revolution, I cannot help but feel guilty, shameful, regretful, and self-hateful. I fully support the efforts to use me as a negative example for lasting and penetrating criticism in order to eradicate the evil influence left by me over long years . . . . No punishment is too much for a man like me. I promise that I will never seek to reverse the verdict on me and I will never be a remorseless capitalist roader. My greatest wish is to be able to stay in the Party and I am begging the party to assign me a tiny and insignificant job at an appropriate time . . . I warmly cheer the victory of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. [Deng Xioaping's autobiography, quoted in David L. Shambaugh, Deng Xioaping: Portrait of a Chinese Statesman, p. 30.]

Langston Hughes, under questioning by the McCarthy-era Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations:

Mr. COHN. Let us see if we can get an answer to this: Have you
ever believed in communism?
Mr. HUGHES. Sir, I would have to know what you mean by communism to answer that truthfully, and honestly, and according to the oath.
Mr. COHN. Interpret it as broadly as you want. Have you ever believed that there is a form of government better than the one under which this country operates today?
Mr. HUGHES. No, sir, I have not.
Mr. COHN. You have never believed that?
Mr. HUGHES. No, sir.
Mr. COHN. That is your testimony under oath?
Mr. HUGHES. That is right.
. . . .
Mr. HUGHES. . . . Did you write something called Scottsboro Limited?
Mr. HUGHES. Yes, sir, I did.
Mr. COHN. Do you not think that follows the Communist party line very well?
Mr. HUGHES. It very well might have done so, although I am not sure I ever knew what the Communist party line was since it very often changed.
Mr. COHN. Mr. Hughes, when you wrote Scottsboro Limited, did you believe in what you were saying in that poem?
Mr. HUGHES. No, sir, not entirely, because I was writing in characters.
Mr. COHN. It is your testimony you were writing in character and what was said did not represent your beliefs?
Mr. HUGHES. No, sir. You cannot say I don’t believe, if I may clarify my feeling about creative writing, that when you make a character, a Klansman, for example, as I have in some of my poems, I do not, sir.
Mr. COHN. How about Scottsboro Limited, specifically. Do you believe in the message carried by that work?
Mr. HUGHES. I believe that some people did believe in it at the time.
Mr. COHN. Did you believe in it?
Mr. HUGHES. Did I?
Mr. COHN. Did you personally believe? You can answer that. Let me read you, ‘‘Rise, workers and fight, audience, fight, fight, fight, fight, the curtain is a great red flag rising to the strains of the Internationale.’’ That is pretty plain, is it not?
Mr. HUGHES. Yes, indeed it is.
Mr. COHN. Did you believe in that message when you wrote, it?
Mr. HUGHES. No, sir.
Mr. COHN. You did not believe it?
Mr. HUGHES. No, sir.
. . . .
Mr. COHN. Do you remember writing this: ‘‘Good morning, Revolution. You are the very best friend I ever had. We are going to pal around together from now on.’’
Mr. HUGHES. Yes, sir, I wrote that.
Mr. COHN. Did you write this, ‘‘Put one more ‘S’ in the USA to make it Soviet. The USA when we take control will be the USSA then.’’
Mr. HUGHES. Yes, sir, I wrote that.
. . . .
Mr. COHN. What I asked was if the quote that appears in the Daily Worker from your article is a statement by you, ‘‘If the 12 Communists are sent to jail, in a little while they will send Negroes to jail simply for being Negroes, and to concentration camps just for being colored.’’ . . . . Do you believe that today?
Mr. HUGHES. No, sir, I would not necessarily believe that today.
Mr. COHN. When did you change your views?
Mr. HUGHES. It is impossible to say exactly when one changes one’s views. One’s views change gradually, sir.[From the Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations, Volume 2]

Regarding actor Owen Wilson, following Wilson's suicide attempt:

A source told People magazine: “Owen is in bad mental shape but said he is thankful to be alive.”

“He knows he came close to ending his life, and he is happy that he was saved from himself.”

“He is basically at home with people watching him 24/7.”[Via Fametastic.]

Re-education is usually successful after suicide:

Proof that most individuals attempting suicide are ambivalent, temporarily depressed, and suffering from treatable disorders is the fact that so few, once rescued and treated, ever actually go on to commit suicide. In one American study, less than 4% of 886 suicide attempters actually went on to kill themselves in the 5 years following their initial attempt[32]. A Swedish study published in 1977 of individuals who attempted suicide at some time between 1933 and 1942 found that only 10.9% of those eventually killed themselves in the subsequent 35 years[33]. This suggests that intervention to keep an individual alive, is actually the course most likely to honor that individuals true wishes or to respect the person's "autonomy."[Burke J. Balch and Randall K. O'Bannon, "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisted Suicide," on the National Right to Life Committee's website. Citations omitted.]

1 comment:

  1. A book of related interest is "Regret: The Persistence of the Possible," by Janet Landman.

    ReplyDelete

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